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Line Balancing

Line Balancing is leveling the workload across all processes in a cell or value stream to remove bottlenecks and excess capacity. A constraint slows the process down and results in waiting for downstream operations and excess capacity results in waiting and absorption of fixed costs. The main objective is to match the production rate (after all wastes i.e non value added activities have been removed) to the TAKT time at each process of the value stream.

Types of Line Balancing

  • Single Model - Single model line balancing is relevant for single product assembly lines where only precedence constraints between tasks are to be considered. Single model line balancing is further divided into two types:​

Type 1: Minimize number of stations for a given production rate​
Type 2: Maximize production rate for a given number of stations

  • Multi Model - Multi model assembly lines produce several models of a basic product type in an intermixed sequence. Multi model line balancing has to assign tasks to stations considering the different TAKT times for the different models. In multi model line balancing, sequence of all model units to be produced should be such that inefficiencies (work overload, line stoppage, off-line repair etc.) are minimized.



Typical Challenges in Line Balancing


  • Positional constraints​

  • Resource constraints

  • ​Activity dependence (LH & RH)​

  • Grouping of activities​ by type across models

  • Grouping of activities by station​

  • ​​Monumental resource constraints


PMI Approach


  • ​Visit to the manufacturing / assembly facility

  • Data collection for single or multi model

  • Work content measurement using advanced PMTS techniques

  • Desired TACT finalization

  • Precedence & dependence details as per model

  • Line balancing (Using advance software)

  • Optimum manpower & line utilization results submission.

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